Plan on establishing the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor

 Elisa Gambino

Elisa Gambino is a Master’s candidate in Chinese Studies at the University of Edinburgh, UK. She has published the essay “The People’s Republic of China’s Pro Status Quo Approach in Cross-Strait Relations” on the peer-reviewed journal Global Politics Review. Her areas of academic interest include Chinese Economy, low-carbon economies, East-Asian international relations, Emerging Markets, ODI from China, Chinese SOEs and energy markets.
The People’s Republic of China, Mongolia and Russia (here referred to as the three party) commit to further developing the already friendly ties, while seeking to build mutually beneficial economic and trade relations in line with the strategic direction of the diplomatic policies between the three parties. In accordance with the memorandum related to the establishment of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, the construction of the New Silk Road, the common goals of mutual benefit and cooperation expressed in the memorandum of understanding signed in Wufa on the 9th of July 2015, the three parties herby sign the following plan outline for the establishment of the above mentioned economic corridor.


The construction of the economic corridor is aimed at enhancing the already existing trade between the three parties, promote product competitive power, improving the transportation routes between these countries and infrastructure construction. The goal is to go a step further in the cooperation between the China, Mongolia and Russia.
The construction and expansion of the economic corridor has the goals of mutually benefit the economic development of these areas, develop the three parties’ potential and superiority, promote mutual prosperity and improve, as allies, the competitive power on the international markets.
The three parties firmly believe that moving forward with the construction of the economic corridor will accelerate the economic integration of this area and the linkup of each party’s development strategies. Furthermore, the interflow of infrastructures, the steady development of investments, the cooperation on economic policies and the cultural exchange create a solid base of cooperation.
The three parties have to positively use the platform of international economic cooperation to successfully implement the condition of the cooperation.

2. Territory of cooperation

Planning outline:

a) Promote the development of transport infrastructure and interconnection

This shell be done through railway, aviation, harbours and ports, as well as parallel strengthening of the cooperation in international transportation corridors, border infrastructures and cross-boundary transportation organizations, in order to form a long-term communication mechanism to promote interconnection and development of transit transportations between China Russia, Asia and Europe.
  • Construction and development of international land transportation corridors, implementation of infrastructure construction projects to protect the passengers, goods and transport accessibility;
  • Enhancement of the three-party railway and road transport potential, including the modernization of existing railways and the construction of new railways;
  • In the field of cross-border transportation, it is important to develop rules to provide good technical and tariff conditions with the goal of promoting international customs clearance, and multimodal transportation as a whole. Promotion of international information exchange, including preliminary information concerning the pre-exchange conditions of rail freight data;
  • Development of interflow among the three parties’ air navigation services, enhancement of safety levels, promotion of economic efficiency and good utilization of space;
  • Development of China-Mongolia-Russia international container transport classes and the construction of a number of transport logistics hub.

b)Strengthen construction of ports and customhouses, as well as inspection and quarantine supervision

Strengthen the capacity of software and hardware at the port, promote the renovation and transformation of infrastructure, enhance the level of prevention and control of public health at ports. Moreover, strengthen information exchange and mutual assistance in law enforcement. Further improvement of the models and mechanisms for customhouses, medical inspection, quarantine and cargo supervision, and jointly promote the passage of goods to improve the capacity of ports.
  • Improvement of port handling capacity to facilitate transhipment, as well as cargo handling at the border railway stations;
  • Promote cooperation in the field of animal and plant inspection and quarantine;
  • Establish cooperation in the food safety mechanism to strengthen the regulatory cooperation between the three countries and facilitate the transit of food;
  • Strengthen the co-ordination and full exchange and sharing of experiences and practices between the three parties’ authenticated managers.
  • Strengthen the cooperation in cross-border surveillance and control of infectious diseases, vector surveillance, disposal of public health emergencies and other aspects of this field.

c)Strengthen production capacity and investment cooperation

Strengthen the cooperation of the three parties in energy and mineral resources, high-tech, manufacturing and agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and other areas, and build investment cooperation to achieve coordinated industrial development, as well as the formation of a closely linked regional production network.
  • Expand the telecommunication network among the three parties, in order to increase Internet traffic, strengthen cooperation in e-commerce, and study measures to improve traffic;
  • Study the economic and technical natures of the newly-constructed transmission lines and power generation equipment;
  • Under specific circumstances, study the nature of the China-Russia crude oil and natural gas pipelines in transit through Mongolia;
  • Continue the cooperation between the three parties in the fields of: nuclear energy, hydropower, wind power, photovoltaic energy, biomass energy;
  •  Strengthen on Science Techology and Innovation  the cooperation between the three countries ;
  • Rely on the civil aerospace infrastructures, develop a three-party satellite, expand information exchange and cooperation.

d)Deepen economic and trade cooperation

Develop border trade, optimize the structure of commodity trade, expand the volume of trade in services, expand economic and trade cooperation and enhance the level of economic and trade cooperation.
  • Steadily improve the level of equipment manufacturing and the production of high-tech products while expanding the scale of trade of agricultural products, energy and minerals, building materials, paper products and textiles;
  • Strengthen communication and cooperation in the field of service trade such as tourism, logistics, finance, consulting, advertising, cultural and creative industries, promote information technology, business processes and know-how outsourcing, as well as carry out software research and development as data maintenance;
  • Establishment of cross-border economic cooperation zones;
  • Guide the cross-border trade towards process, investment and trade integration.

e) Expand cultural exchange and cooperation

The focus will be on deepening cooperation in the fields of education, science and technology, culture, tourism, health and intellectual property rights, facilitate personnel exchanges and expand non-governmental exchanges.
  • Development of tourism and cross-border/cross-regional tourism routes;
  • Improve border cities tourism and leisure functions, improve the diversity of tourism products, build a positive tourism environment;
  • Promote cross-border and cross-regional tourism comprehensive security, including measures to ensure the safety of tourists and personal properties, protect tourism environment of the three parties. Establish emergency relief mechanism for tourists;
  • Research on the possibility of developing a common tourism brand and carrying out tourist information aggregation;
  • Strengthen exchanges and cooperation in education and scientific research institutions;
  • Strengthen exchanges and cooperation in intellectual property legal systems, intellectual property rights protection practices and personnel training in the field of intellectual property rights;
  • Exchanges and cooperation in the fields of drama, music and acrobatics, film, folk creation, cultural heritage protection, library affairs and culture, with the aim of creating cultural exchange brands and expanding creative links.

f) Strengthen ecological cooperation

  • Study the possibility of establishing an information sharing platform and cooperate in the areas of biodiversity, nature reserves, wetland protection, forest fire prevention and desertification.
  • Expand cooperation in disaster prevention and mitigation, enhance information exchange in the event of natural calamities, man-made accidents, cross-boundary forest and grassland fires, risky infectious diseases;
  • Actively carry out technical exchanges and cooperation in the field of ecological environmental protection;
  • Co-sponsoring environmental seminars to explore possibilities for cooperation in research.

g) Promote local and border cooperation

Develop comparative advantages, promote local and border regional cooperation, the construction of several local open cooperation platforms, preparation for participation in the construction of the implementation of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor project, as well as its promotion;
  • Promote economic and trade cooperation between the three parties;
  • Develop comparative advantages of the three countries, promote the construction of cooperation mechanisms, such as promoting the eastern part of Mongolia and the relevant regional cooperation mechanism in both Chinese and Russian areas.

3. Cooperative principles

Carry out research within specific geographical areas pre-decided by the three parties, according with the framework of the initiative.

4. Capital sourcing

The investments involving the project will be implemented on a case-by-case basis, they will include the use of national investment, private sector investment, the introduction of public-private partnerships and other possibilities such as the inclusion, not exclusive, of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the BRIC Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Bank Consortium, the Silk Road Fund, and other financial institutions willing to support the financing.

5.Implementation mechanism

The authorized agencies responsible for the implementation of the project are as follows:
  • China – China National Development and Reform Commission;
  • Mongolia- Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
  • Russian Federation – Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation.
The Tripartite Authorized Implementing Authority shall meet at least once a year to monitor the planning and implementation of the project and to negotiate the necessary measures for its further implementation. The three parties will also study the possibility of setting up an investment project centre and will build the centre if it is economically viable.

6. Others

This project is not an international treaty, it does not produce rights and obligations under the international law.
The rights and obligations of the three parties under international treaties are beyond the scope of this project.
This plan is effective from the date of signing and is valid for five years.
Before the end of the effective period of this plan, the three parties will carry out a joint assessment of the implementation and extend the validity period to the next five years according to the assessment results and mutual agreement.
This plan was signed in Tashkent on the 23 June 2016 by Chinese, Mongolian and Russian signatures, each of which is equally authentic.



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